What are the negative feedback mechanisms and why are they important to health.Answer: The negative feedback mechanisms of a living organism are the mechanisms that reduce or suppress the original stimulus, given the effector’s output.Thermoregulation, osmoregulation and glucoregulation are few examples of negative feedback mechanisms. The importance of negative feed back mechanisms is that they provide a negative feedback loop to keep conditions of a living organism within tolerable
limits and to prevent it from a sudden severe changes.Negative feedback decreases the deviation from an ideal normal value, and is important in maintaining homeostasis. Most endocrine glands are under the control of negative feedback mechanisms (Scanlon &. Sanders, 2003, pp. 8-11).Question # 2.i Explain what happens when an ATOM becomes an ION.Answer: Generally an atom has a neutral status due to the fact that the number of protons in the nucleolus are equal to the number of electrons revolving around that atom’s nucleus. Nevertheless some times it happens that due to some external factors an atom or a group of atoms undergoes either an efficiency or deficiency of one or more electrons hence a positive or negative charge appears on an atom. This positive or negative charge caring entity is termed as an ion. ii: Name two cations and two anions found in body fluids. Give the correct notation and name for each ion….
base balance. They also work as a counter flow for sodium’s function in nerve
transmission in a nerve net work and as an activator for several enzyme systems (Weber,
2007, para. 1-14).
Question # 3.i. Briefly describe the three ways by which the bacterial infections
Answer: Bacteria are microorganisms that live everywhere in our environment.
Like many other microorganisms, most of bacteria are pathogenic and are likely to cause
disease. Given the right circumstances, they cause infection, such as when transmitted to
an immunocompromised host. Bacterial infections are transmitted by following three
ways (Introduction to Infection Prevention, n. d., pp. 6-7).
1. When the bacteria come in contact with bare skin.
2. When the bacteria come in contact with mucous membranes or no intact skin,
3. When the bacteria come in contact with normally sterile body sites
ii. How could shaking out soiled bed-linen increase transmission of infectious
diseases within a ward
Answer: There have been few recent studies demonstrating a definitive
association between the transmissions of infections diseases due to shaking out soiled
bed-linen and the ventilation of buildings. There is strong and sufficient evidence to
demonstrate the association between ventilation, air movements in buildings and the
transmission/spread of infectious diseases such as measles, tuberculosis, chickenpox,
influenza, smallpox and SARS. The transmission of infectious diseases occur due to fact
that there a number of microorganism that can survive can multiply in within poor indoor
Question # 4: Some bacteria produce bacterial endospores. Why does this makes
infection control more